Значение и использование
Data at groundwater sites are gathered for many purposes. Each of these purposes generally requires a specific set of data elements. For example, when the groundwater quality is of concern not only are the ‘minimum set of data elements’ required for the site, but information concerning the sample collection depth interval, method of collection, and date and time of collection are needed to fully qualify the data. Another group of elements are recommended for each use of the data, such as aquifer characteristics or water-level records. Normally the more information that is gathered about a site by field personnel, the easier it is to understand the groundwater conditions and to reach valid conclusions and interpretations regarding the site.
The data elements listed in this guide and Guides D5408 and D5410 should assist in planning what information can be gathered for a groundwater site and how to document these data.
Note 6—Some important data elements may change during the existence of a site. For example, the elevation of the measuring point used for the measurement of water levels may be modified because of repair or replacement of equipment. This frequently occurs when the measuring point is an opening in the pump and the pump is modified or replaced. Because changes cannot always be anticipated, it is preferable to reference the height of the measuring point to a permanent nearby altitude datum. The measuring point is referenced by being the same altitude (zero correction) or above (negative correction) or below (plus correction) the altitude datum. All appropriate measurements should be corrected in reference to the altitude datum before entry into the permanent record. Care must be exercised to keep the relationship of these data elements consistent throughout the duration of the site.
Some data elements have an extensive list of components or possible entries. For example, the aquifer identification list described in 6.1.8 has over 5000 entries. Lengthy lists of possible entries are not included in this guide, however, information on where to obtain these components is included with the specific data element.
Note 7—This guide identifies other sources, lists, etc., of information required to completely document information about any groundwater site.
1.1 This guide covers Part Two of three guides to beused in conjunction with Practice D5254 that delineates the data desirable to describe agroundwater data collection or sampling site. This guide identifiesphysical descriptors, such as construction and geologic elements,for a site. Part One (Guide D5408) describes additional information beyond the minimum setof data elements that may be specified to identify any individualgroundwater site, while Part Three identifies usage descriptors,such as monitoring, for an individual groundwater site.
Note 1—Agroundwater site is defined as any source, location, or samplingstation capable of producing water or hydrologic data from anatural stratum from below the surface of the earth. A source orfacility can include a well, spring or seep, and drain or tunnel(nearly horizontal in orientation). Other sources, such asexcavations, driven devices, bore holes, ponds, lakes, andsinkholes, that can be shown to be hydraulically connected to thegroundwater are appropriate for the use intended.
Note2—Part One (Guide D5408) includes data confidence classification descriptor (oneelement), geographic location descriptors (four elements),political regime descriptor (one element), source identifierdescriptors (four elements), legal descriptors (nine elements),owner descriptors (two elements), site visit descriptors (threeelements), other identification descriptors (two elements), otherdata descriptors (three elements), and remarks descriptors (threeelements). Part Three (Guide D5410) includes monitoring descriptors (77 data elements),irrigation descriptors (four data elements), waste site descriptors(nine data elements), and decommissioning descriptors (eight dataelements). For a list of descriptors in this guide, see Section3.
1.2 These data elements are described in terms usedby groundwater hydrologists. Standard references, such as theGlossary of Geology (1) and varioushydrogeologic professional publications, are used to determinethese definitions. Many of the suggested elements and theirrepresentative codes are those established by the Water ResourcesDivision of the U.S. Geological Survey and used in the NationalWater Information Systems computerized data base (1-19).
Note3—The purpose of this guide is to suggest data elements that can becollected for groundwater sites. This does not uniquely imply acomputer data base, but rather data elements for entry into anytype of permanent file.
Note4—Component and code lists given with some of the data elements,for example “Type of Spring,” are only suggestions. These lists can bemodified, expanded, or reduced for the purpose intended by thecompany or agency maintaining the groundwater data file.
Note5—Use of trade names in this guide is for identification purposesonly and does not constitute endorsement by ASTM.
1.3 This guide includes the data elements desirableto document a groundwater site beyond those given in the “Minimum Set of Data Elements.” Some examples of the data elements are welldepth, contributing aquifer, and permanence of spring. No singlesite will need every data element, for example, springs do not needwell depth and well casing data. Each record (group of related dataelements) for a site has mandatory data elements, such as the typeof lift for the lift record. However, these elements are considerednecessary only when that specific record is gathered for thesite.
1.4 The values stated in either SI units orinch-pound units [presented in brackets] are to be regardedseparately as standard. The values stated in each system may not beexact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be usedindependently of the other. Combining values from the two systemsmay result in non-conformance with the standard.
1.4.1 The gravitational system of inch-pound unitsis used when dealing with inch-pound units. In this system, thepound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight), while the unit formass is slugs. The rationalized slug unit is not given, unlessdynamic (F = ma) calculations are involved.
1.5 This standard does notpurport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associatedwith its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standardto establish appropriate safety and health practices and determinethe applicability of regulatory limitations prior touse.
1.6 This guide offers anorganized collection of information or a series of options and doesnot recommend a specific course of action. This document cannotreplace education or experience and should be used in conjunctionwith professional judgment. Not all aspects of this guide may beapplicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intendedto represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacyof a given professional service must be judged, nor should thisdocument be applied without consideration of a project's manyunique aspects. The word “Standard” in thetitle of this document means only that the document has beenapproved through the ASTM consensus process.