Значение и использование
Normally, the basic groundwater data are gathered by trained personnel during the field investigation phase of a study. Each agency or company has its own methods of obtaining, recording, and storing the information. Usually, these data are recorded onto forms that serve both in organizing the information in the field and the office, and many times as entry forms for a computer data base. For groundwater data to be of maximum value to the current project and any future studies, it is essential that a minimum set of key data elements be recorded for each site. The data elements presented in this practice do not uniquely imply a computer data base, but rather the minimum set of groundwater data elements that should be collected for entry into any type of permanent file.
When obtaining basic data concerning a groundwater site, it is necessary to identify thoroughly that site so that it may be readily field located again with minimal uncertainty and that it may be accurately plotted and interpreted for data parameters in relationship to other sites. For example, information can be presented on scientific maps and in summary tables.
1.1 This practice covers what information should beobtained for any individual groundwater site, also known asmonitoring location or sampling station. As used in this practice,a site is meant to be a single point, not a geographic area orproperty. A groundwater site is defined as any source, location, orsampling station capable of producing water or hydrologic data froma natural stratum from below the surface of the earth. A source orfacility can include a well, spring or seep, and drain or tunnel(nearly horizontal in orientation). Other sources, such asexcavations, driven devices, bore holes, ponds, lakes, andsinkholes, that can be shown to be hydraulically connected to thegroundwater, are appropriate for the use intended (see18.104.22.168).
Note1—There are many additional data elements that may be necessary toidentify a site, but are not included in the minimum set of dataelements. An agency or company may require additional data elementsas a part of their minimum set.
1.2 This practice includes those data elements thatwill distinguish a site as to its geographical location on thesurface of the earth, political regimes, source identifiers, andindividual site characteristics. These elements apply to allgroundwater sites. Each category of site, such as a well or spring,may individually require additional data elements to be complete.Many of the suggested components and representative codes for codeddata elements are those established by the Water Resources Divisionof the U.S. Geological Survey and used in the National WaterInformation Systems computerized data base (1).
Note2—The data elements presented in this practice do not uniquelyimply a computer data base, but rather the minimum set ofgroundwater data elements that should be collected for entry intoany type of permanent file.
1.3 The values stated in either SI units orinch-pound units [presented in brackets] are to be regardedseparately as standard. The values stated in each system may not beexact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be usedindependently of the other. Combining values from the two systemsmay result in non-conformance with the standard.
1.3.1 The gravitational system of inch-pound unitsis used when dealing with inch-pound units. In this system, thepound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight), while the unit formass is slugs. The rationalized slug unit is not given, unlessdynamic (F = ma) calculations are involved.
1.4 This standard does notpurport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associatedwith its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standardto establish appropriate safety and health practices and determinethe applicability of regulatory limitations prior touse.
1.5 This practice offers a setof instructions for performing one or more specific operations.This document cannot replace education or experience and should beused in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects ofthis practice may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTMstandard is not intended to represent or replace the standard ofcare by which the adequacy of a given professional service must bejudged, nor should this document be applied without considerationof a project's many unique aspects. The word “Standard” in thetitle of this document means only that the document has beenapproved through the ASTM consensus process.