Значение и использование
Data at groundwater sites are gathered for many purposes, each of which generally requires a specific set of data elements. For example, when groundwater quality is a concern, not only are the minimum set of data elements required for the site, but information concerning the sample collection depth interval, method of collection, and date and time of collection are needed to fully qualify the data. Another group of elements are recommended for each use of the data, such as aquifer characteristics or water-level records. Normally the more information that is gathered about a site by field personnel, the easier it is to understand the groundwater conditions and to reach valid conclusions and interpretations regarding the site.
The data elements listed in this guide and Guides D5409 and D5410 should assist in planning what information can be gathered for a groundwater site and how to document these data.
Note 6—Some important data elements may change during the existence of a site. For example, the elevation of the measuring point used for the measurement of water levels may be modified because of repair or replacement of equipment. This frequently occurs when the measuring point is an opening in the pump and the pump is modified or replaced. Because changes cannot always be anticipated, it is preferable to reference the height of the measuring point to a nearby, permanent altitude datum. The measuring point is referenced by being the same altitude (zero correction) or above (negative correction) or below (plus correction) the altitude datum. All appropriate measurements should be corrected in reference to the altitude datum before entry into the permanent record. Care must be exercised to keep the relationship of these data elements consistent throughout the duration of the site.
Some data elements have an extensive list of components. For example, the aquifer identification list described in Guide D5409, has over 5000 components. Lengthy lists of possible components are not included in this guide, however, information on where to obtain these components is included with the specific data element.
Note 7—This guide identifies many sources, lists, etc., of information required to completely document information about any groundwater site.
1.1 This guide covers Part One of three guides to beused in conjunction with Practice D5254 that delineates the data desirable to describe agroundwater data collection or sampling site. This guide describesadditional information beyond the minimum set of data elements thatmay be needed to identify a groundwater site. Part Two identifiesphysical descriptors, such as construction, for a site, while PartThree identifies usage descriptors, such as monitoring, for anindividual groundwater site.
Note 1—Agroundwater site is defined as any source, location, or samplingstation capable of producing water or hydrologic data from anatural stratum from below the surface of the earth. A source orfacility can include a well, spring or seep, and drain or tunnel(nearly horizontal in orientation). Other sources, such asexcavations, driven devices, bore holes, ponds, lakes, andsinkholes, that can be shown to be hydraulically connected to thegroundwater, are appropriate for the use intended.
Note2—Part Two (Guide D5409) includes individual site characteristic descriptors (7data elements), construction descriptors (56 data elements), liftdescriptors (16 data elements), geologic descriptors (26 dataelements), hydraulic descriptors (20 data elements), and springdescriptors (11 data elements). Part Three (Guide D5410) includes monitoring descriptors (77 data elements),irrigation descriptors (4 data elements), waste site descriptors (9data elements), and decommissioning descriptors (8 data elements).For a list of descriptors in this guide, see Section 4.
1.2 These data elements are described in terms usedby groundwater hydrologists. Standard references, such as theGlossary of Geology and various hydrogeologic professionalpublications, are used to determine these definitions. Many of thesuggested elements and their representative codes are thoseestablished by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. GeologicalSurvey and used in the National Water Information Systemscomputerized data base (1-9).
Note3—The purpose of this guide is to suggest data elements that can becollected for groundwater sites. This does not uniquely imply acomputer data base, but rather data elements for entry into anytype of permanent file.
Note4—Component and code lists given with some of the data elements,for example “Format of OtherData,” are only suggestions. Theselists can be modified, expanded, or reduced for the purposeintended by the company or agency maintaining the groundwater datafile.
Note5—Use of trade names in this guide is for identification purposesonly and does not constitute endorsement by ASTM.
1.3 This guide includes the data elements desirableto identify a groundwater site beyond those given in the “Minimum Set of Data Elements.” Some examples of the data elements are mapidentification, permitting facts, and supporting information. Nosingle site will need every data element, for example, manygroundwater sites do not need the data elements described in thelegal record group. Each record (group of related data elements)for a site has mandatory data elements, such as the date for theownership record. However, these elements are considered necessaryonly when that specific record is gathered for the site.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regardedas standard. No other units of measurement are included in thisstandard.
1.5 This standard does notpurport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associatedwith its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standardto establish appropriate safety and health practices and determinethe applicability of regulatory limitations prior touse.
1.6 This guide offers anorganized collection of information or a series of options and doesnot recommend a specific course of action. This document cannotreplace education or experience and should be used in conjunctionwith professional judgment. Not all aspects of this guide may beapplicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intendedto represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacyof a given professional service must be judged, nor should thisdocument be applied without consideration of a project's manyunique aspects. The word “Standard” in thetitle of this document means only that the document has beenapproved through the ASTM consensus process.