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ASTM A370-12
Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products
Стандартные методы испытаний и определения механических характеристик стальных изделий
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Разработчик:
Зарубежные/ASTM
ICS:
77.040.10 Mechanical testing of metals / Механические испытания металлов77.140.01 Iron and steel products in general / Продукция из чугуна и стали в целом
Сборник (ASTM):
01.01 Steel--Piping, Tubing, Fittings / Сталь - Система трубопроводов, Трубы, Фитинги01.02 Ferrous Castings; Ferroalloys / Стальное литье, Ферросплавы01.03 Steel--Plate, Sheet, Strip, Wire; Stainless Steel Bar / Сталь - Плиты, листы, штрипсы, проволока; сортовой прокат из нержавеющей стали01.04 Steel--Structural, Reinforcing, Pressure Vessel, Railway / Сталь - Конструкционная, арматурная, для сосудов под давлением, рельсовая01.05 Steel--Bars, Forgings, Bearing, Chain, Tool / Сталь - Прутья, Поковки и Заготовки, Балки
Тематика:
Steel--Structural, Tubes, Plate, Coated
Описание
Значение и использование

Ductile vs. Brittle BehaviorBody-centered-cubic or ferritic alloys exhibit a significant transition in behavior when impact tested over a range of temperatures. At temperatures above transition, impact specimens fracture by a ductile (usually microvoid coalescence) mechanism, absorbing relatively large amounts of energy. At lower temperatures, they fracture in a brittle (usually cleavage) manner absorbing appreciably less energy. Within the transition range, the fracture will generally be a mixture of areas of ductile fracture and brittle fracture.

The temperature range of the transition from one type of behavior to the other varies according to the material being tested. This transition behavior may be defined in various ways for specification purposes.

The specification may require a minimum test result for absorbed energy, fracture appearance, lateral expansion, or a combination thereof, at a specified test temperature.

The specification may require the determination of the transition temperature at which either the absorbed energy or fracture appearance attains a specified level when testing is performed over a range of temperatures. Alternatively the specification may require the determination of the fracture appearance transition temperature (FATTn) as the temperature at which the required minimum percentage of shear fracture (n) is obtained.

Further information on the significance of impact testing appears in Annex A5.

Область применения

1.1 These test methods cover procedures anddefinitions for the mechanical testing of steels, stainless steels,and related alloys. The various mechanical tests herein describedare used to determine properties required in the productspecifications. Variations in testing methods are to be avoided,and standard methods of testing are to be followed to obtainreproducible and comparable results. In those cases in which thetesting requirements for certain products are unique or at variancewith these general procedures, the product specification testingrequirements shall control.

1.2 The following mechanical tests aredescribed:



Sections
Tension5 to 13
Bend14
Hardness15
Brinell16
Rockwell17
Portable18
Impact19 to 28
Keywords29


1.3 Annexes covering details peculiar to certainproducts are appended to these test methods as follows:



Annex
Bar ProductsA1.1
Tubular ProductsAnnex A2
FastenersAnnex A3
Round Wire ProductsAnnex A4
Significance of Notched-Bar ImpactTestingAnnex A5
Converting Percentage Elongation ofRound Specimens to
Equivalents for Flat Specimens
Annex A6
Testing Multi-Wire StrandAnnex A7
Rounding of Test DataAnnex A8
Methods for Testing Steel ReinforcingBarsAnnex A9
Procedure for Use and Control ofHeat-Cycle SimulationAnnex A10


1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to beregarded as the standard.

1.5 When this document is referenced in a metricproduct specification, the yield and tensile values may bedetermined in inch-pound (ksi) units then converted into SI (MPa)units. The elongation determined in inch-pound gauge lengths of 2or 8 in. may be reported in SI unit gauge lengths of 50 or 200 mm,respectively, as applicable. Conversely, when this document isreferenced in an inch-pound product specification, the yield andtensile values may be determined in SI units then converted intoinch-pound units. The elongation determined in SI unit gaugelengths of 50 or 200 mm may be reported in inch-pound gauge lengthsof 2 or 8 in., respectively, as applicable.

1.6 Attention is directed to ISO/IEC 17025 whenthere may be a need for information on criteria for evaluation oftesting laboratories.

1.7 This standard does notpurport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associatedwith its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standardto establish appropriate safety and health practices and determinethe applicability of regulatory limitations prior touse.

Ключевые слова:
bend test; Brinell hardness; Charpy impact test; elongation; FATT (Fracture Appearance Transition Temperature); hardness test; portable hardness; reduction of area; Rockwell hardness; tensile strength; tension test; yield strength; Bend testing--metallic materials; Brinell hardness; Charpy impact test; Elongation--metallic materials; Forgings; Fracture appearance transition temperature (FATT); Generator materials; Hardness (indentation)--metallic materials; Impact resistance; Impact testing--Charpy; Mechanical analysis/testing; Pressure vessel steel; Railroad steel materials; Rockwell hardness; Seven-wire strand (tendon); Shipbuilding steel materials--specifications; Steel; Steel bars; Steel bolting materials; Steel chain; Steel pipe; Steel sheet; Steel sheet/strip; Steel sheet/strip/plate; Steel tube; Steel valves; Steel wire; Temperature tests--metals/alloys; Tensile properties/testing--steel; Tin mill products; Yield strength and yield point;