Значение и использование
5.1 The basic test method of determining the boiling range of a petroleum product by performing a simple batch distillation has been in use as long as the petroleum industry has existed. It is one of the oldest test methods under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D02, dating from the time when it was still referred to as the Engler distillation. Since the test method has been in use for such an extended period, a tremendous number of historical data bases exist for estimating end-use sensitivity on products and processes.
5.2 The distillation (volatility) characteristics of hydrocarbons have an important effect on their safety and performance, especially in the case of fuels and solvents. The boiling range gives information on the composition, the properties, and the behavior of the fuel during storage and use. Volatility is the major determinant of the tendency of a hydrocarbon mixture to produce potentially explosive vapors.
5.3 The distillation characteristics are critically important for both automotive and aviation gasolines, affecting starting, warm-up, and tendency to vapor lock at high operating temperature or at high altitude, or both. The presence of high boiling point components in these and other fuels can significantly affect the degree of formation of solid combustion deposits.
5.4 Volatility, as it affects rate of evaporation, is an important factor in the application of many solvents, particularly those used in paints.
5.5 Distillation limits are often included in petroleum product specifications, in commercial contract agreements, process refinery/control applications, and for compliance to regulatory rules.
1.1 Thistest method covers the atmospheric distillation of petroleumproducts and liquid fuels using a laboratory batch distillationunit to determine quantitatively the boiling range characteristicsof such products as light and middle distillates, automotivespark-ignition engine fuels with or without oxygenates (see Note 1), aviation gasolines,aviation turbine fuels, diesel fuels, biodiesel blends up to 20 %,marine fuels, special petroleum spirits, naphthas, white spirits,kerosines, and Grades 1 and 2 burner fuels.
Note1: An interlaboratory study wasconducted in 2008 involving 11 different laboratories submitting 15data sets and 15 different samples of ethanol-fuel blendscontaining 25 % volume, 50 % volume, and 75 % volume ethanol. Theresults indicate that the repeatability limits of these samples arecomparable or within the published repeatability of the method(with the exception of FBP of 75 % ethanol-fuel blends). On thisbasis, it can be concluded that Test Method D86 is applicable to ethanol-fuel blendssuch as Ed75 and Ed85 (Specification D5798) or other ethanol-fuel blends withgreater than 10 % volume ethanol. See ASTM RR:D02-1694 forsupporting data.2
1.2 Thetest method is designed for the analysis of distillate fuels; it isnot applicable to products containing appreciable quantities ofresidual material.
1.3 Thistest method covers both manual and automated instruments.
1.4Unless otherwise noted, the values stated in SI units are to beregarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses areprovided for information only.
1.5WARNING—Mercury has been designated bymany regulatory agencies as a hazardous material that can causecentral nervous system, kidney and liver damage. Mercury, or itsvapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials.Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercurycontaining products. See the applicable product Material SafetyData Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPA’swebsite—http://www.epa.gov/mercury/faq.htm—for additionalinformation. Users should be aware that selling mercury and/ormercury containing products into your state or country may beprohibited by law.
1.6This standard does not purport to address all of the safetyconcerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibilityof the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety andhealth practices and determine the applicability of regulatorylimitations prior to use.
1.7This international standard was developed in accordance withinternationally recognized principles on standardizationestablished in the Decision on Principles for the Development ofInternational Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by theWorld Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)Committee.