Значение и использование
4.1 This guide may be used as a reference of acceptable open-cut construction practices for the proper installation of buried fiberglass and thermoplastic pipe. This guide may be used as follows:
4.1.1 Installation contractors have an awareness of the level of workmanship required and use this information for bidding purposes and during construction.
4.1.2 Construction inspectors have a reference of acceptable installation practices.
4.1.3 Specification writers may use this guide as a reference in contract documents.
4.1.4 Designers may review this information during planning and design for factors to consider in the preparation of plans and specifications.
4.1.5 The owner of the pipeline may use this guide as a reference for restoration of proper pipe support and embedment when original construction is disturbed due to repairs, modifications, or construction of adjacent or crossing pipelines or cables.
4.2 This guide should not be used to replace project specification requirements, manufacturer's recommendations, plumbing codes, building codes, or ASTM installation standards, but may be used to supplement that information.
1.1 Thisguide describes installation techniques and considerations foropen-cut construction of buried pipe. Although this guide wasdeveloped for plastic pipe, the concepts of providing theappropriate soil support, care in handling, correct joiningtechniques, proper soil compaction methods, and prevention ofinstallation damage may apply to any pipe.
1.1.1Plastic pipe refers to thermoplastic and fiberglass pipe.
1.1.2Thermoplastic pipe refers to pipe fabricated from polyvinylchloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene(ABS), cross-linked polyethylene (PEX), chlorinated polyvinylchloride (CPVC), or polypropylene (PP). A list of specificationsfor these products is given in Appendix X2.
1.1.3Fiberglass pipe refers to a glass-fiber-reinforcedthermosetting-resin pipe. A list of ASTM specifications for theseproducts is given in AppendixX2.
Note1: Appendix X2 cannot be consideredinclusive because there may be unlisted, recently adopted ASTMspecifications for new products that may be installed using thisguide.
Note2: Only a few of the ASTMspecifications listed in AppendixX2 include the associated fittings. While this guide appliesto the installation of pipe, couplings, and fittings, no attemptwas made to list all the possible fitting specifications that maybe used in conjunction with the pipe specifications. Consult eachspecification or manufacturer for appropriate fittingstandards.
1.1.4For simplification, the term pipe will be used in this document tomean pipe sections, fittings, and couplings.
1.2 Thisguide contains general construction information applicable forplastic pipe and supplements the installation standards for thevarious types of pipe as described in Practices D2321, D2774, D3839, F690, and Guide F645.
Note3: This guide is not applicable forgas pipe applications as additional requirements mayapply.
1.3Flexible pipe, such as thermoplastic and fiberglass, are typicallydesigned to rely on the stiffness of the soil surrounding the pipefor support. The contract documents should describe therequirements of an appropriate soil support system. Theconstruction practices described in this guide can be instrumentalin attaining the required soil stiffness.
1.3.1 Adiscussion of the interaction between a buried pipe and thesurrounding soil and the importance of attaining proper soilsupport is in AppendixX1.
1.3.2Following these guidelines will be helpful in preventing localdeformations in the pipe.
1.4 Thisguide does not cover underwater installation, pipe that needs to besupported on piling, perforated pipe used for drainage, or gaspipelines.
1.5Pipelines through areas described as “expansive soils,” “collapsingsoils,” landfills or water-logged land (such as swamps) should beconstructed using site-specific installation procedures and are notdiscussed in this guide.
1.6 Thisguide is not intended to cover all situations. Specific pipecharacteristics, fluid transported, local site conditions,environmental concerns, or manufacturer's recommendations mayrequire different guidelines.
1.7 Theconstruction practices presented in this guide may be affected bythe installation requirements of owners, specifying organizations,or regulatory agencies for pipelines crossing roads and highways,other pipelines or cables, or waterways such as streams, drainagechannels, or floodways.
1.8Culverts or pipe that are used as passages through water retainingembankments (for example, earth dams) may be constructed using theprinciples of this guide, if appropriate provisions are made toprevent water movement along the outside of the pipe (usingimpervious soils, cutoff collars, head walls, etc.).
1.9 Thevalues stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. Theinch-pound units in parentheses are given for information only.
Note4: There is no similar orequivalent ISO standard covering the primary subject matter of thisguide.
1.10This standard does not purport to address all of the safetyconcerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibilityof the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety andhealth practices and determine the applicability of regulatorylimitations prior to use.