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Standard Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Saturated Cohesive Soils Using Controlled-Strain Loading
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1.1 This test method is for the determination of the magnitude and rate-of-consolidation of saturated cohesive soils using continuous controlled-strain axial compression. The specimen is restrained laterally and drained axially to one surface. The axial force and base excess pressure are measured during the deformation process. Controlled strain compression is typically referred to as constant rate-of-strain (CRS) testing.

1.2 This test method provides for the calculation of total and effective axial stresses, and axial strain from the measurement of axial force, axial deformation, and base excess pressure. The effective stress is computed using steady state equations.

1.3 This test method provides for the calculation of the coefficient of consolidation and the hydraulic conductivity throughout the loading process. These values are also based on steady state equations.

1.4 This test method makes use of steady state equations resulting from a theory formulated under particular assumptions. Section presents these assumptions.

1.5 The behavior of cohesive soils is strain rate dependent and hence the results of a CRS test are sensitive to the imposed rate of strain. This test method imposes limits on the strain rate to provide comparable results to the incremental consolidation test.

1.6 The determination of the rate and magnitude of consolidation of soil when it is subjected to incremental loading is covered by Test Method D 2435.

1.7 This test method applies to intact (Group C and Group D of Practice D 4220), remolded, or laboratory reconstituted samples or specimens.

1.8 This test method is most often used for materials of relatively low hydraulic conductivity that generate measurable excess base pressures. It may be used to measure the compression behavior of essentially free draining soils but will not provide a measure of the hydraulic conductivity or coefficient of consolidation.

1.9 All recorded and calculated values shall conform to the guide for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D 6026.

1.9.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded and calculated in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that should generally be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the users objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design.

1.9.2 Measurements made to more significant digits or better sensitivity than specified in this standard shall not be regarded a non-conformance with this standard.

1.10 This standard is written using SI units. Inch-pound units are provided for convenience. The values stated in inch-pound units may not be exact equivalents; therefore, they shall be used independently of the SI system. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the this standard.

1.10.1 The gravitational system of inch-pound units is used when dealing with inch-pound units. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight), while the unit for mass is slugs. The rationalized slug unit is not given, unless dynamic (F = ma) calculations are involved.

1.10.2 It is common practice in the engineering/construction profession to concurrently use pounds to represent both a unit of mass (lbm) and of force (lbf). This implicitly combines two separate systems of units; that is, the absolute system and the gravitational system. It is scientifically undesirable to combine the use of two separate sets of inch-pound units within a single standard. As stated, this standard includes the gravitational system of inch-pound units and does not use/present the slug unit for mass. However, the use of balances or scales recording pounds of mass (lbm) or recording density in lbm/ft^{3} shall not be regarded as non-conformance with this standard.

This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.